From Race War to Socialist Racism: Foucault’s Second Transcription

Verena Erlenbusch

Abstract


Since the publication of Michel Foucault’s lectures at the Collège de France, his position on race and racism has received much attention. The focus of discussion has largely been on his genealogy of biological racism as a feature of modern biopolitics. His account of social racism, by contrast, remains largely unexamined. Thus, the aim of this paper is to reconstruct and substantiate Foucault’s cursory remarks of the transcription of the historical discourse of race war into social racism. After contextualizing Foucault’s discussion of racism and outlining his account of two transcriptions undergone by the discourse of race war into biological and social racism in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, I draw on the writings of the social revolutionary Lev Tikhomirov as well as Peter Holquist’s analysis of Soviet state violence as a technique of population management to give some substance to Foucault’s rather vague outline of a possible genealogy of social racism. 


Keywords


Foucault; race war; social racism; genealogy; Russia; Soviet state racism

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alain Besançon, Le Tsarévitch Immolé: La Symbolique de La Loi Dans La Culture Russe (Paris: Librairie Plon, 1967)

Alaina Lemon, "Without a 'Concept?' Race as Discursive Practice," Slavic Review 61, no. 1 (2002) https://doi.org/10.2307/2696981

Alexandre Koyré, La Philosophie et Le Problème National En Russie Au Début Du XIXe Siècle (Paris: Librairie Ancienne Honoré Champion, 1929)

Amir Weiner, "Nothing but Certainty," Slavic Review 61, no. 1 (2002) https://doi.org/10.2307/2696980

Andrew Dilts, Punishment and Inclusion: Race, Membership, and the Limits of American Liberalism (New York: Fordham University Press, 2014) https://doi.org/10.5422/fordham/9780823262410.001.0001

Ann Laura Stoler, Race and the Education of Desire: Foucault's History of Sexuality and the Colonial Order of Things (Durham: Duke University Press Books, 1995)

Brady Thomas Heiner, "Foucault and the Black Panthers," City 11, no. 3 (December 1, 2007)

Chloë Taylor, "Race and Racism in Foucault's Collège de France Lectures," Philosophy Compass 6, no. 11 (2011) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-9991.2011.00443.x

David Macey, "Rethinking Biopolitics, Race and Power in the Wake of Foucault," Theory, Culture & Society 26, no. 6 (November 1, 2009) https://doi.org/10.1177/0263276409349278

Diane Paul, "Eugenics and the Left," Journal of the History of Ideas 45, no. 4 (October 1, 1984) https://doi.org/10.2307/2709374

Ellen K. Feder, Family Bonds: Genealogies of Race and Gender (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2007)

Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, What Is the Third Estate? (New York: Praeger, 1964)

Eric D. Weitz, "Racial Politics without the Concept of Race: Reevaluating Soviet Ethnic and National Purges," Slavic Review 61, no. 1 (April 1, 2002) https://doi.org/10.2307/2696978

Falguni A. Sheth, Toward a Political Philosophy of Race (Albany: SUNY Press, 2009)

Francine Hirsch, "Race without the Practice of Racial Politics," Slavic Review 61, no. 1 (2002) https://doi.org/10.2307/2696979

George Leggett, The Cheka: Lenin's Political Police (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981)

Giorgio Agamben, Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life, trans. Daniel Heller-Roazen (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998)

Grace Kyungwon Hong and Roderick A. Ferguson, eds., Strange Affinities: The Gender and Sexual Politics of Comparative Racialization (Durham NC: Duke University Press Books, 2011)

Halit Mustafa Tagma, "Homo Sacer vs. Homo Soccer Mom: Reading Agamben and Foucault in the War on Terror," Alternatives: Global, Local, Political 34, no. 4 (2009) https://doi.org/10.1177/030437540903400403

Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet de Lamarck, Zoological Philosophy: An Exposition with Regard to the Natural History of Animals, trans. Hugh Samuel Roger Elliott (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011)

Karl Kautsky, Terrorism and Communism: A Contribution to the Natural History of Revolution, trans. W.H. Kerridge (Hyperion Press: Westport, 1973)

Kim Su Rasmussen, "Foucault's Genealogy of Racism," Theory, Culture & Society 28, no. 5 (September 1, 2011) https://doi.org/10.1177/0263276411410448

Ladelle McWhorter, Racism and Sexual Oppression in Anglo-America: A Genealogy (Indiana University Press, 2009)

Laurent Dubreuil, "Leaving Politics: Bios, Zōē, Life," Diacritics 36, no. 2 (2006)

Loren R. Graham, "Science and Values: The Eugenics Movement in Germany and Russia in the 1920s," The American Historical Review 82, no. 5 (December 1, 1977) https://doi.org/10.2307/1856342

Loren R. Graham, Science, Philosophy, and Human Behavior in the Soviet Union (New York: Columbia University Press, 1987)

Maksim Gorky, Leopold Auerbach, and Semen Firin, Belomor: An Account of the Construction of the New Canal Between the White Sea and the Baltic Sea, trans. Amabel Williams-Ellis (Westport: Hyperion Press, 1977)

Mark B. Adams, "Eugenics in Russia, 1900-1940," in The Wellborn Science : Eugenics in Germany, France, Brazil, and Russia: Eugenics in Germany, France, Brazil, and Russia, ed. Mark B. Adams (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990)

Mark Kelly, "Racism, Nationalism and Biopolitics: Foucaultʼs Society Must Be Defended," Contretemps 4 (2004)

Mary Beth Mader, "Modern Living and Vital Race: Foucault and the Science of Life," Foucault Studies 0, no. 12 (September 12, 2011) https://doi.org/10.22439/fs.v0i12.3336

Michel Foucault, "Le Jeu de Michel Foucault," in Dits et Écrits III, 1976-1979 (Paris: Gallimard, 1994)

Michel Foucault, "Non Au Sexe Roi," in Dits et Écrits III, 1976-1979 (Paris: Gallimard, 1994)

Michel Foucault, "Society Must Be Defended": Lectures at the Collège de France, 1975-1976, trans. David Macey (Penguin Books, 2004)

Michel Foucault, "The Order of Things," in Michel Foucault: Aesthetics, Method, and Epistemology, ed. James Faubion (New York: The New Press, 1998)

Michel Foucault, Abnormal: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1974-1975 (Picador, 2004)

Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (New York: Vintage, 1995)

Michel Foucault, History of Madness, ed. Jean Khalfa, trans. Jonathan Murphy (London and New York: Routledge, 2006)

Michel Foucault, Sécurité, Territoire, Population. Cours Au Collège de France, 1977-1978 (Paris: Gallimard, 2004)

Michel Foucault, Security, Territory, Population: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1977-1978, ed. Michel Senellart et al., trans. Graham Burchell (Palgrave Macmillan, 2007)

Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality, Volume 1: An Introduction, trans. Robert Hurley (New York: Vintage, 1990)

Mika Ojakangas, "Impossible Dialogue on Bio-Power: Agamben and Foucault," Foucault Studies 0, no. 2 (August 7, 2007)

Nicolas Morozov, "The Terroristic Struggle," in Violence in Politics. Terror and Political Assassination in Eastern Europe and Russia, ed. Feliks Gross (The Hague and Paris: Mouton, 1972)

Nikolai Bukharin, The Politics and Economics of the Transition Period, trans. Oliver Field (London, Boston, and Henley: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979)

Nikolai Krementsov, "Eugenics in Russia and the Soviet Union," in The Oxford Handbook of the History of Eugenics, ed. Alison Bashford and Philippa Levine (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010)

Nikolai Krementsov, "From 'Beastly Philosophy' to Medical Genetics: Eugenics in Russia and the Soviet Union," Annals of Science 68, no. 1 (January 1, 2011) https://doi.org/10.1080/00033790.2010.527162

Nikolai Krementsov, Revolutionary Experiments: The Quest for Immortality in Bolshevik Science and Fiction (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013) https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199992980.001.0001

Peter Holquist, "State Violence as Technique: The Logic of Violence in Soviet Totalitarianism," in Landscaping the Human Garden: Twentieth-Century Population Management in a Comparative Framework, ed. Amir Weiner (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003)

Roderick A. Ferguson, The Reorder of Things: The University and Its Pedagogies of Minority Difference (Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press, 2012) https://doi.org/10.5749/minnesota/9780816672783.001.0001

Santiago Castro-Gómez, La hybris del punto cero: ciencia, raza e ilustración en la Nueva Granada (1750-1816) (Bogotá: Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, 2005)

Sergei G. Nechaev, "The Catechism of the Revolutionary, 1968," in Imperial Russia: A Source Book, 1700-1917, ed. Basil Dmytryshyn (Hinsdale: Dryden Press, 1974)

Stepniak, Underground Russia (London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1883); G. Tarnovski, "Terrorism and Routine," in Voices of Terror, ed. Walter Laqueur (Naperville: Sourcebooks, 2004)

The Executive Committee, "Letter Sent by the Revolutionary Executive Committee to Alexander III at His Accession to the Throne," in Early Writings on Terrorism, ed. Ruth Kinna, vol. 1, 3 vols. (London and New York: Routledge, 2006)

The text was originally written in French and published, in 1886, as Tikhomirov, Lev Aleksandrovich, La Russie Politique et Sociale (Paris: La Nouvelle Librairie Parisienne, 1886)

Thomas Lemke, "'A Zone of Indistinction' – A Critique of Giorgio Agamben's Concept of Biopolitics," Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 7, no. 1 (2005)

Tikhomirov, Lev Aleksandrovich, Russia: Political and Social, trans. Edward Aveling, vol. 1 (London: Swan Sonnenschain, Lowrey & Co., 1888)

Vera Figner, Memoirs of a Revolutionist (New York: International Publishers, 1927)

Vladimir I. Lenin, "Letter to American Workers," in Collected Works, ed. Jim Riordan, vol. 28 (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1964)




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22439/fs.v0i0.5239



Copyright (c) 2017 Verena Erlenbusch

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

visitors since Feb 2009. Hosted by CBS Library