Integrating Indigenous Values into Federal Agency Impact Assessments to Reduce Conflicts—A Role for Anthropologists
Conflicts surrounding the development of public lands are on the rise around the world. In the United States, where laws require federal agencies to conduct environmental and cultural impact assessments before approving or permitting development projects, conflicts still occur. This is especially true for projects that impact indigenous lands, resources, and communities, as the recent controversy surrounding Dakota Access Pipeline project so well illustrates. The purpose of this article is to highlight some of the problems I have encountered as an anthropologist conducting cultural impact assessments for federal agencies and for indigenous communities. Central among the problems encountered are the lack of awareness and appreciation for indigenous values by project proponents, agencies, and sometimes even the analysts hired to conduct the assessments. Recommendations for improving the quality of cultural impact assessments, which are based on the tenets of Action Anthropology, are explained.
Advisory Council on Historic Preservation. n.d. Protecting Historic Properties: A Citizen's Guide to Section 106 Review. Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, Washington, D.C. http://www.achp.gov/docs/CitizenGuide.pdf
Banks, Kimball M. and Ann M. Scott, editors. 2016. The National Historic Preservation Act: Past, Present, and Future. New York, NY, Routledge.
Burke, Heather, Claire Smith, Dorothy Lippert, Joe Watkins, and Larry Zimmerman, editors. 2008. Kennewick Man: Perspectives on the Ancient One. Walnut Creek, CA, Left Coast Press.
Burney, Michael and Jeff Van Pelt. 2002. It's About Time, It's About Them, It's About Us: A Decade of Papers, 1988–1998, Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. Journal of Northwest Anthropology, Memoir No. 6, Cernea, Michael M. 2000. Risks, Safeguards, and Reconstruction: A Model for Population Displacement and Resettlement. In Risks and Reconstruction. Experiences of Resettlers and Refugees, edited by Michael M. Cernea and Christopher McDowell, pp. 11–55. Washington, D.C., The World Bank.
Cernea, Michael M., and Har Mohan Mathur. 2008. Can Compensation Prevent Impoverishment? Reforming Resettlement through Investments and Benefit Sharing. New Delhi, India, Oxford University Press.
King, Thomas F. 2012. Cultural Resource Laws and Practice. Walnut Creek, CA, Alta Mira Press.
King, Thomas F. 2017. Consultation, Dictation, and Druids on the Salisbury Plain. March 20, 2017. Tom King's CRM Plus Blog. www.CRMPlus.blogspot.com.
King, Thomas F. 2009. Our Unprotected Heritage: Whitewashing the Destruction of Our Cultural & Natural Environment. Walnut Cree, CA, Left Coast Press.
Harrison, Barbara. 2001. Collaborative Programs in Indigenous Communities: From Fieldwork to Practice. Walnut Creek, Alta Mira Press.
King, Thomas F. 2003. Places That Count: Traditional Cultural Properties in Cultural Resource Management. Walnut Creek, CA, Alta Mira Press.
Lurie, Nancy. 1999. Sol Tax and Tribal Sovereignty: The 1961 American Indian Conference. Human Organization, 58(1):108-117. https://doi.org/10.17730/humo.58.1.y84xh610402x182u
Parker, Patricia L. and Thomas F. King. 1990. Guidelines for Evaluating and Documenting Traditional Cultural Properties. National Register Bulletin, 38. Washington DC.
Silliman, Stephen W. (editor). 2008. Collaborating at the Trowell's Edge: Teaching and Learning in Indigenous Archaeology. Amerind Studies in Archaeology. Tucson, University of Arizona Press.
Stapp, Darby C., editor. 1999. Special Issue, Changing Paradigms in Cultural Resource Management. Practicing Anthropology 20(3). Society for Applied Anthropology.
Stapp, Darby C. 2000a. Tribes Working with Agencies to Protect Resources. Cultural Resource Management, 25(7):41–44. National Park Service.
Stapp, Darby C. 2000b. Tribal CRM, Archaeologists, and Action Anthropology. High Plains Applied Anthropologist, 20(1):72–77.
Stapp, Darby C. 2008. "The Impact of NAGPRA on Anthropology: A View from Cultural Resource Management in the Pacific Northwest," in Opening Archaeology: Repatriation's Impact on Method and Theory, edited by Thomas Killion. Santa Fe, NM, SAR Press.
Stapp, Darby C. 2009. Near Disaster on the Columbia. In Archaeological Disasters: The Risk Management Approach, edited by Darby C. Stapp and Julia G. Longenecker, pp. 103–106. Walnut Creek, CA, Left Coast Press.
Stapp, Darby C. (editor). 2012. Action Anthropology and Sol Tax in 2012: The Final Word? Journal of Northwest Anthropology, Memoir 8. Richland, WA. Available through Amazon.com.
Stapp, Darby C. 2016. The Historic Preservation Act in the Pacific Northwest. In The National Historic Preservation Act: Past, Present, and Future, edited by Kimball M. and Ann M. Scott, pp. 106–125. New York, NY, Routledge.
Stapp, Darby C., and Michael S. Burney. 2002. Tribal Cultural Resource Management: The Full Circle to Stewardship. Walnut Creek: Alta Mira Press. (with Michael Burney)
Stapp, Darby C., and Peter Jones. 2008. An Anthropological Perspective on Magistrate Jelderks' Kennewick Man Decision." (with Peter N. Jones), in Kennewick Man: Perspectives on the Ancient One, edited by Heather Burke, Claire Smith, Dorothy Lippert, Joe Watkins, and Larry Zimmerman.
Stapp, Darby C. and Julia G. Longenecker. 1999. Learning from the Kennewick Man Controversy. Commentary, Anthropology News, 40(6):10–11. Washington, D.C. American Anthropological Association. https://doi.org/10.1111/an.1922.214.171.124
Stapp, Darby C. and Julia G. Longenecker. 2000. The Times, They are A-Changin': Can Archaeologists and Native Americans Change with the Times?" Society for American Archaeology Bulletin, 18(2):18–21.
Stapp, Darby C., and Julia G. Longenecker. 2005. "Reclaiming the Ancient One: Addressing the Conflicts Between American Indians and Archaeologists over Protection of Cultural Places", in Indigenous Peoples and Archaeology: The Politics of Practice, edited by Claire Smith and H. Martin Wobst, pp. 171–184. London: Routledge Press.
Stapp, Darby C., and Ellen Prendergast. 2006. Protecting Cultural Landscapes. The Applied Anthropologist, 26(1).
Stapp, Darby C., and Julia G. Longenecker. 2009. Avoiding Archaeological Disasters: A Risk Management Approach (with Julia Longenecker). Left Coast Press. Walnut Creek, CA.
Stoffle, Richard W., María Nieves Zende-o, and David B. Halmo. 2001. American Indians and the Nevada Test Site: A Model of Research and Consultation. Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office.
Walker, Deward E. Jr., Pamela Graves, Joe Ben Walker, and Dan Hutchison. 2015. An Ethnographic Assessment of Some Cultural Landscape in Southern Wyoming and Idaho. Journal of Northwest Anthropology, Memoir 11.
World Bank. 1999. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook. Chapter 3. Social and Cultural Issues in Environmental Review. Washington, D.C., The World Bank.
Copyright (c) 2018 Darby C. Stapp
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).