Individualisering og social differentiering i den refleksive modernitet

  • Klaus Rasborg

Abstract

Ikke kun i klassisk, men også i moderne sociologi spiller begrebet om ”individualisering” en helt central rolle. I nyere sociologi har ikke mindst Ziehe, Beck, Giddens og Bauman gjort individualiseringsbegrebet til et nøglebegreb i deres teorier om sen-, refleksiv og flydende modernitet. Individualiseringssociologiens betoning af frisættelse, valg og social forandring udfordres imidlertid af differentierings- og magtsociologien (Bourdieu, Dean, Rose m.fl.), der i højere grad betoner klasser, magt og social reproduktion. I artiklen søges skismaet mellem forandring og social reproduktion ”overvundet” i form af et forsøg på at tænke individualiseringens differentierede former i den refleksive modernitet. Antagelsen er således, at der – afhængigt af besiddelsen af økonomisk, social og kulturel kapital – er forskel på refleksiv moderne menneskers evne til at håndtere individualiseringens krav, hvilket – med fokus på unge – illustreres med en række empiriske eksempler. Afslutningsvis peges der på muligheden af en teoretisk integration af fundamentale indsigter i såvel individualiserings- som differentieringssociologien. ENGELSK ABSTRACT: Klaus Rasborg: Individualization and Social Differentiation in Reflexive Modernity The concept of ”individualization” plays a central role in both classic and modern sociology. In modern sociology writers such as Ziehe, Beck, Giddens and Bauman made the concept of individualization a key concept in their theories of ”late”, ”reflexive” and ”liquid modernity”. However, the emphasis which the sociology of individualization puts on ”liberation”, choice and social change is challenged by the sociology of differentiation and power (Bourdieu, Dean, Rose and others) with its greater emphasis on class, power and social reproduction. This article seeks to ”overcome” this schism between social change and social reproduction in the form of an attempt to think the differentiated forms of individualization in reflexive modernity. The assumption is that there is a differentiation in reflexive modern people’s ability to deal with the requirements of individualization, depending on their possession of economic, social and cultural capital. This is argued by means of a theoretical ”reconstruction” of the insights and deficiencies of the sociology of individualization, and demonstrated – with a focus on young people – by a number of empirical examples. In conclusion, the article discusses the possibility of a theoretical integration of the fundamental insights of both the sociology of individualization and the sociology of differentiation. Key words: Individualization, social differentiation, young people, risk, reflexive habitus.
Published
2013-12-15
Section
Artikler