Om positivisme og objektivisme i samfundsvidenskaberne

  • Nikolaj Nottelmann

Abstract

”Positivisme” hører til de mest kontroversielle og mangetydige termer i moderne debatter om samfundsvidenskabelig metode. Bredt anvendte lærebøger er på én gang ofte uklare og voldsomt indbyrdes uenige angående positivismens metafysiske, erkendelsmæssige og ideologiske forpligtelser. Denne artikel leverer en receptionshistorisk behandling af positivismen fra dens dobbelte udspring i det 19. århundredes franske og tyske filosofi frem til i dag. Hermed kortlægges en række væsentlige historiske omforståelser og misforståelser som baggrund for nutidens begrebsforvirring. Det påvises efterfølgende, at forskellige positivistiske retningers forhold til videnskabelig objektivisme er en temmelig kompleks og varieret affære. Det er således ufrugtbart at behandle samfundsvidenskabelig positivisme og objektivisme under ét, sådan som det ofte gøres. ENGELSK ABSTRACT: Nikolaj Nottelmann: On positivism and objectivism in thesocial sciences “Positivism” ranks among the most controversial and polysemous terms in modern social scientific methodological discourses. Widely used textbooks in the social sciences are often unclear and mutually inconsistent in their mapping of positivism’s metaphysical, epistemological, and ideological commitments. This article offers a reception history, tracing positivism from its dual roots in 19th century French and German philosophy of science to the present day. The article points out several eventful historical reinterpretations and misinterpretations responsible for the current conceptual confusion. Then the article explains how various positivistic currents have very different and complex relations to scientific objectivism. Thus, despite common practice, it is unfruitful to treat social scientific positivism and objectivism under one heading. Keywords: Positivism; Objectivism; Phenomenalism; Logical Empiricism; Critical Theory

References

Abbott, A. 1990. »Positivism and Interpretation in Sociology: Lessons for Sociologists from

the History of Stress Research«. Sociological Forum, 5, 3: 435-58. https://doi.org/10.1007/

BF01115095

Adorno, T. 1969. »Einleitung«, i H. Maus & F. Fürstenberg (udg.): Der Positivismusstreit in

der deutschen Soziologie (pp. 7-80). Neuwied & Berlin: Luchterhand.

Andersen, H. (red.) 1994: Videnskabsteori og metodelære, 4. udg. Frederiksberg: Samfundslitteratur.

Andersen, H. 2004: »Videnskabsopfattelser i sociologi«, i L. Aagaard & S. Brock (red.): Videnskabens

Ansigter (pp. 96-112). Aarhus: Philosophia.

Ayer, A.J.: 1936: Language, Truth, and Logic. London: Victor Gollancz.

Ayer, A.J. (ed.) 1959: Logical Positivism. New York: The Free Press.

Beck Holm, A. 2011: Videnskab i Virkeligheden – En grundbog i videnskabsteori. Frederiksberg:

Samfundslitteratur.

Birkler, J. 2005: Videnskabsteori. En grundbog. København: Munksgaard.

Blumberg, A.E. & H. Feigl 1931: »Logical Positivism. A New Movement in European Philosophy

«. Journal of Philosophy 28, 11: 281-296. https://doi.org/10.2307/2015437

Boolsen, M. Watt & Jacobsen, M. Hviid 2015: »Positivisme«, i M. Hviid Jacobsen, K. Lippert

Olsen & P. Nedergaard (red.): Videnskabsteori i Statskundskab, Sociologi og Forvaltning. 3.

Udgave. København: Hans Reitzel.

Bourdeau, M. 2015: »Auguste Comte«, i E.N. Zalta (ed.): Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

(Winter 2015 Edition). http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2015/entries/comte.

Bourdieu, P. 1988: »Vive la Crise!: For Heterodoxy in Social Science«. Theory and Society, 17,

: 773-87. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00162619

Brinkkjær, U. & M. Høyen 2011: Videnskabsteori for de pædagogiske professionsuddannelser.

København: Hans Reitzel.

Caldwell, B. 1982: Beyond Positivism. Economic Methodology in the Twentieth Century. London:

Allen & Unwin.

Campbell, D.T. 1969: »Ethnocentrism of Disciplines and the Fish-Scale Model of Omniscience

«, i M. Sherif & C. Sherif (eds.): Interdisciplinary Relationships in The Social Sciences

(pp. 328-48). Chicago: Aldine.

Carnap, R. 1932: »Überwindung der Metaphysik durch logische Analyse der Sprache«.

Erkenntnis, 2: 219-41. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02028153

Carnap, R. 1938: »Logical Foundations of the Unity of Science«, International Encyclopedia of

Unified Science, 1, 1: 42-62.

Comte, A. 1830-42: Cours de Philosophie Positive. Tomes 1-6. Paris: Bachelier.

Comte, A. 1844: Discours sur l’esprit positif. Paris: Carilian-Goeury et V. Dalmont

Comte, A. 1851-54: Système de politique positive, ou Traité de sociologie instituant la religion de

l’Humanité. Tomes 1-4. Paris: Carilian-Goeury et V. Dalmont.

Comte, A. 1852: Catéchisme positiviste, ou sommaire exposition de la religion universelle. Paris:

Carilian-Goeury et V. Dalmont.

Creath, R. 2014: »Logical Empiricism«, i E.N. Zalta (ed.): Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

(Spring 2014 Edition).

Collin, F. & S. Køppe (red.) 2003: Humanistisk VIdenskabsteori, 2. udg. København: DR Multimedie.

Dear, P. 2006: The Intelligibility of Nature. How Science Makes Sense of the World. Chicago:

University of Chicago Press.

Durkheim, E. 2002: Les règles de la méthode sociologique. Chicoutimi: Classiques des sciences

sociales.

Emden, C.J. 2008: Friedrich Nietzsche and the Politics of History. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press.

Fay, B. 1975: Social Theory and Political Practice. London: George Allen & Unwin.

Frege, G. 1919: »Der Gedanke. Eine logische Untersuchung«. Beiträge zur Philosophie des

deutschen Idealismus, 2: 58-77.

Gane, M. 1988: On Durkheim’s Rules of Sociological Method. New York: Routledge.

Guba, E.G. & Lincoln, Y.S. 1994: »Competing Paradigms in Qualitative Research«, i N. K.

Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (eds.), Handbook of qualitative research. London: Sage: 105-17.

Horkheimer, M. 1937. »Der neueste Angriff auf die Metaphysik«. Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung,

VI: 4-53. https://doi.org/10.5840/zfs193761134

Hunt, S.D. 2001: »The Influence of Philosophy, Philosophies, and Philosophers on a Marketer’s

Scholarship«. Journal of Marketing, 65, 4: 117-22.

Hyldgaard, K. 2006: Videnskabsteori – en grund til de pædagogiske fag. Frederiksberg: Roskilde

Universitetsforlag.

Jørgensen, J. 1948: Den logiske Empirismes Udvikling. København: Bianco Luno.

Kaila, E. 1930: Der logistische Neupositivismus. Eine kritische Studie. Turku: Annales Universitas

Aboensis.

Kant, I. 1974. Kritik der reinen Vernunft. Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp.

Keane, W. 2005: »Estrangement, Intimacy, and the Objects of Anthropology«, i G. Steinmetz

(ed.) (pp. 59-88): The Politics of Method in The Human Sciences. Positivism and Its Epistemological

Other. Durham: Duke University Press.

Keat, R. 1981: The Politics of Social Theory. Habermas, Freud and the Critique of Positivism. Oxford:

Basil Blackwell.

Kellner, D. 1991: »Introduction to the Second Edition«, i H. Marcuse, One-Dimensional Man.

nd Edition (pp. xi–xxxviii). New York: Routledge.

Kjørup, S. 1996: Menneskevidenskaberne. Problemer og traditioner i humanioras videnskabsteori.

Frederiksberg: Roskilde Universitetsforlag.

Kuhn, T.S. 1970: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Second Edition, Enlarged. International

Encyclopedia of Unified Science II, 2. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Laas, E. 1879: Idealismus und Positivismus. Eine kritische Auseinandersetzung. Berlin: Weidmann.

Laudan, L. 1971: »Towards a Reassessment of Comte’s ‘Methode Positive’. Philosophy of Science

, 1: 35-53. https://doi.org/10.1086/288338

Mach, E. 1905: Erkenntnis und Irrtum. Skizzen zur Psuchologie der Forschung. Leipzig: Johann

Ambrosius Barth.

Malachowski, A. (ed.) 2013: The Cambridge Companion to Pragmatism. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press.

Marcuse, H. 1991: One-Dimensional Man. Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society.

nd edition. New York: Routledge.

Mill, J.S. 1891: Auguste Comte and Positivism. 4th Edition. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner

& Co.

Mill, J.S. 1963-91: Collected works of John Stuart Mill. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Neurath, O. 1981: Gesammelte philosophische und methodologische Schriften. Wien: Hölder-

Pichler-Tempsky.

Neurath, O. et al.: 1981: »Wissenschaftliche Weltauffassung. Der Wiener Kreis.«, i Neurath

: 299-336.

Neubert, M. 2014: »Herbert Feigl«, i E.N. Zalta (ed.): Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

(Summer 2014 Edition).

Nottelmann, N. 2000: Otto Neuraths erkendelsesteori. Prisopgave indleveret ved Københavns

Universitet.

Nottelmann, N. 2006: »Otto Neurath on the Structure of Protocol Sentences; A New Approach

to An Interpretative Puzzle«. Journal for General Philosophy of Science, 37, 1: 165-

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10838-006-0484-2

Passmore, J. 1967: »Logical Positivism«, i P. Edwards (ed.): The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 5,

(pp. 52-7). New York: Macmillan.

Pedersen, E.O. & Toft, P. 2004: »Positivisme: erfaringsbaseret viden formuleret i en logisk

sprogramme«, i L. Fuglsang & P.B. Olsen (red.): Videnskabsteori i samfundsvidenskaberne

på tværs af fagkulturer og paradigmer. 2. udgave (pp. 55-78). Roskilde: Roskilde Universitetsforlag.

Popper, K.R. 1969: »Die Logik der Sozialwissenschaften«, i H. Maus & F. Fürstenberg

(udg.): Der Positivismusstreit in der deutschen Soziologie (pp. 103-24). Neuwied & Berlin:

Luchterhand.

Przybylski, H. 1989: »Positivismus«, i J. Ritter & K. Gründer (udg.): Historisches Wörterbuch

der Philosophie Band 7 (pp. 1118-22). Darmstadt: Wissenschafliche Buchgesellschaft.

Scharff, R.C. 2013: »Being Post-Positivist … or Just Talking about it«. Found Sci, 18: 393-7.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10699-011-9249-4

Schlick, M. 1932: »Positivismus und Realismus«. Erkenntnis, 3: 1-31. https://doi.org/10.1007/

BF01886406

Singer, M. 2005: The Legacy of Positivism. Houndmills: Palgrave-Macmillan.

Sklair, L. 1970. The Sociology of progress. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Steinmetz, G. 2005: »Introduction. Positivism and Its Other in the Social Sciences«, i G.

Steinmetz (ed.): The Politics of Method in The Human Sciences. Positivism and Its Epistemological

Other (pp. 1-56). Durham: Duke University Press.

Sørensen, A. 2010: Om videnskabelig viden – gier, ikker og ismer. Frederiksberg: Samfundslitteratur.

Turner, J.H. 2006: »Explaining the Social World – Historicism versus Positivism«. The Sociological

Quarterly, 47, 3: 451-63. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.2006.00053.x

Uebel, T. 1992: Overcoming Logical Positivism From Within. The Emergence of Neurath’s Naturalism

in the Vienna Circle’s Protocol Sentence Debate. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Vaihinger, H. 1922: Philosophie des Als Ob. System der theoretischen, praktischen und religiösen

Fiktionen der Menschheit auf Grund eines idealistischen Positivismus. Siebente und Achte

Auflage. Lepzig: Felix Meiner.

Werkmeister, W.H. 1937: »Seven Theses of Logical Positivism Critically Examined«. The

Philosophical Review, 46, 3: 276-297. https://doi.org/10.2307/2181086

Wittgenstein, L. 1984: Tractatus logico-philosophicus, i Werkausgabe Band I (pp. 7-86). Frankfurt

a.M: Suhrkamp.

Published
2017-10-15
Section
Artikler