Hometown Volunteers: A Case Study of Volunteer Organizations in Surakarta Supporting Joko Widodo's Presidential Campaign

CORNELIS LAY

Abstract


This article discusses the phenomenon of volunteer organizations supporting Joko Widodo – better known as Jokowi – in Surakarta and the surrounding area during Indonesia's 2014 presidential election. This research is important because, although volunteerism has been commonly replicated since Barack Obama's victories in the 2008 and 2012 American presidential elections, profi les of volunteers (their identities, motivations and self-defi nitions of their activities) and their activities (how they organize carry out and fund them) are still largely unknown. The article aims to address this lack of research within both the context of political transformation in Indonesia as well as the broader context of volunteerism, and to show how it contributes to democratization in Indonesia. This article reveals that volunteerism as a movement crosses class, age, ideological and gender boundaries, while its organizational form at the local level seems to be based on class, gender and/or age. Through their organizational models, activities, approaches and motives, volunteers have restored activism and volunteerism to Indonesian political processes. Nonetheless, this article cannot be certain of the movement's contribution to the development of Indonesian democracy.

Keywords


Election volunteers, volunteerism, democracy, Surakarta, Indonesia

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adnan, Muhammad Fachri 2002. 'Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Perolehan Suara Partai Politik pada Pemilihan Umum' (Factors Infl uencing Political Parties' Accumulation of Votes in General Elections). Jurnal Demokrasi 1 (1): 44–45.

Amna, Erik, and Ekman, Joakim 2013. 'Standby Citizen: Diverse Faces of Political Passivity'. European Political Science Review 6 (2), 1–21.

Bull, C. Neil 1971. 'One Meaure for Defi ning a Leisure Activity'. Journal of Leisure Research 15 (1): 120–126. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222216.1971.11970021.

Cnaan, Ram A., Femida Handy, and Margaret Wadsworth 1996. 'Defi ning Who is a Volunteer: Conceptual and Empirical Considerations'. Nonprofi t and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 25 (3): 364–383. https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764096253006.

Cicognani, Elvira and Bruna Zani 2015. 'Social and Psychological Factors Infl uencing Political and Civic Participation: A Psychological Perspective'. In Martyn Barrett and Bruna Zani (eds.). Political and Civic Engagement: Multidisciplinary Perspective. London: Routledge: 124–145.

Ganz, Marshall 2009. 'Organizing Obama: Campaign, Organization, and Movement'. Paper presented at the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, San Fransisco, 8–11 August 2009.

Han, Hahrie and Elizabeth McKinna 2015. Groundbreakers: How Obama's 2.2 Million Volunteers Transformed Campaigning in America. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199394593.001.0001.

Kelly, John R. 1972. 'Work and Leisure: A Simplifi ed Paradigm'. Journal of Leisure Research 4 (1): 50–62. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222216.1972.11970057.

Larson, George D 1990. Masa Menjelang Revolusi: Keraton dan Kehidupan Politik di Surakarta 1912–1942 (Before the Revolution: The Palace and Political Life in Surakarta, 1912–1914). Yogyakarta: UGM Press.

Lay, Cornelis 2017a. 'The Emerging of New Democratic Space: CSOs and Parliament in Post-Soeharto Indonesia'. Power, Confl ict and Democracy Journal 5 (1):1–24. https://doi.org/10.22146/pcd.26286.

Lay, Cornelis 2017b. 'Political Linkages between CSOs and Parliament in Indonesia: A Case Study of Political Linkage in Drafting the Aceh Governance Law'. Asian Journal of Political Science 25 (1): 130–150. https://doi.org/10.1080/02185377.2017.1297243.

Lay, Cornelis 2017c. 'Volunteers from Periphery: Case Studies of the Survivors of the Lapindo Mudfl ow and Strenkali, Surabaya, Forced Evictions'. Southeast Asian Studies 6 (1): 31–61.

Mowen, John C. and Haris Sujan 2005. 'Volunteer Behavior: A Hierarchical Model Approach for Investigating Its Trait and Functional Motive Antecedents'. Journal of Consumer Psychology 15 (2): 170–182. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327663jcp1502_9.

Omoto, Allen M. and Mark Snyder 1995. 'Sustained Helping without Obligation: Motivation, Longevity of Service, and Perceived Attitude Change Among AIDS Volunteers'. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 68 (4): 671–686. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.68.4.671.

Penner, Lous A. and Marcia A. Finkelstein 1998. 'Dispositional and Structural Determinants of Voluteerism'. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74 (2): 525–537. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.74.2.525.

Pratikno, and Cornelis Lay 2013. 'From Populism to Democratic Polity: Problems and Challenges in Solo, Indonesia'. In Kristian Stokke and Olle Tornquist (eds.) Democratization in the Global South: The Importance of Transformative Politics. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan: 254–276.

Presta, John 2010. Mr and Mrs Grassroots: How Barack Obama, Two Bookstore Owners, and 300 Volunteers Did It. Pennsylvania: Elevator Group.

Sefsani, Ririn and Patrick Ziegenhain 2015. 'Civil-society Support: A Decisive Factor in the Indonesian Presidential Elections in 2014'. ASIEN 136: 14–35.

Shiraishi, Takashi 1997. Zaman Bergerak: Radikalisasi Rakyat di Jawa 1912–1926 (Changing Times: The Radicalization of the Javanese People, 1912–1926). Jakarta: Grafiti.

Suhartono 1991. Apanage dan Bekel: Perubahan Sosial di Pedesaan Surakarta 1830–1920 (Land and Overseers: Social Changes in Rural Surakarta, 1830–1920). Yogyakarta:Tiara Wacana.

Verba, Sidney, Kay Lehman Schlozman and Henry E. Brady 1995. Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22439/cjas.v36i1.5513



Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies
ISSN (print): 1395-4199, ISSN (online): 2246-2163

Hosted by CBS Library